by Jeffrey Dach MD
Richard is a 53 year old tattoo artist who works out every day. His testosterone buddies at the gym and advised Richard to “go see a testosterone doctor” and get taken care of. So, Richard found himself sitting in my office telling me his story. Richard was worried about his testosterone levels. Richard lamented that work outs at the gym seem less and less productive, without the usual gain in muscle mass and tone. In addition, Richard may have noticed some decline in libido aver the past few years. His nutrition program is excellent with a protein shake and a handful of vitamin supplements every day. Left image of Peruvian MACA Root courtesy of AMAZON.
Labs Show Clomiphene Effect
Although I was expecting Richards labs to show low testosterone levels, his total testosterone was surprisingly good at 870, and his FSH and LH were also higher than usual, 9.4 and 11.3 Indeed this pattern is typical for Clomiphene (Clomid) which increases FSH, LH and Testosterone. Although originally FDA approved as a fertility drug for women, we sometimes use Clomid off-label to increase testosterone levels in younger males.
I conveyed this information to Richard who denied using Clomid from his gym buddies. I then asked RIchard if he was taking anything else. No, nothing that he knows of. He thought for a few seconds and then volunteered this information: one day he went shopping at the farmers market and bought some Peruvian MACA powder for his protein shakes. That’s the only new item added to his routine.
I hadn’t heard of Peruvian MACA before so I quickly looked it up and found this a 2014 article by Dr Uchiyama, Maca enhances levels of (LH) luteinising hormone . (1) This intrigued me because a grocery store item, Peruvian MACA, produced an effect very similar to Clomiphene, an FDA approved fertility drug.
Another 2015 study by Dr. Ohta showed that feeding maca extract powder to rats increased the testosterone levels, by enhancing the activity of the Leydig cells.. The testosterone increased effect took 14 weeks to appear, and the LH was not affected. (see image below) (2-3))
Various MACA users have reported that MACA is a “superfood” with a long list of health benefits: (4-6)
Faster muscle gain and boosts muscle growth.
Faster recovery from sports injury
More energy, stamina and endurance
Massive libido and sexual boost
Better overall mental clarity and less stress.
Improved glucose tolerance and improved thyroid function
Bioavailable source of DIM (Di-Indole_Methane) which reverses estrogen dominance.
Maca relieves PMS symptoms,headaches and depression, anxiety
MACA use in Perimenopausal and Post Menopausal Women (6)
Hugo Malaspina, MD reports Maca enhances libido and sexual performance in elderly males, and in women MACA can be used to relieve peri-menopausal symptoms, and is considered “an effective-and superior-substitute for a pharmaceutical hormone replacement therapy”. (6) His protocol uses between 1,200 and 3,600 milligrams of precooked, organic maca (3-8 capsules) daily for menopausal and postmenopausal women, and he reports very good results. One of Dr Malaspina’s patients ha a total hysteretomy with removal of the ovaries. She didnt feel well on hormone replacement therapy (HRT), an stopped it. At the time she ws seen in the office, her blood estradiol was 15, very low, Two monthas after starting MACA, her estradiol level ws 75, and her hot flashes and menopausal symptoms were gone.(5) This story intrigued me, as I had not heard of such a botanical herb serving as a substitute for HRT in menopausal women.(6)
Dr Meissner reports in two studies in 2005 and 2006 on a product named MACA-GO. Ten early post menopausal women were given 2 grams daily of MACA-Go and followed over eight months. In comparison to placebo, the MACA treated women showed decreased FSH, and increased LH levels resulting in increased Estradiol and Progesterone. They reported less menopausal discomfort.(7)
A second 2006 study of early post menopausal women showed (8):
After two months of Maca-GO, Estradiol was increased significantly. However, FSH, Thyroid (T3) , ACTH AdrenoCorticotropic Hormone, Cortisol, and BMI were all decreased.
Maca-Go “relieved symptoms of menopausal discomfort, (hot flushes and night sweating in particular)”… “providing an alternative non-hormonal plant option to reduce dependence on hormone therapy programs (HRT).”(8)
Relieving SSRI induced Sexual Dysfunction(9)
Dr Christina Dording reported in 2015, “Maca Root as Treatment for Antidepressant-Induced Sexual Dysfunction in Women. She found a 9.5% remission rate for maca treatment versus 4.8% for placebo.(9)
MACA Has Antidepressant Effects in Mice and Humans
Mouse model studies from 2014 showed MACA treated mice had an anti-depressant effects with increased thickness of the granule cell layer in the dentate gyrus in the mouse brains . Maca extract reduced cortisol serum levels in the mice, and increased brain noradrenalin and dopamine levels (10)
Similarly a 2015 study in Climacteric by Dr. Stojanovska using 29 post-menopausal Hong Kong women found MACA has antidepressant and anti-anxiety effects.(12) Compared to placebo at 6 and 12 weeks, there was no change in hormone levels. However, there was improved depression and anxiety scores and unexpected reduction in blood pressure and.(12)
MACA Mimics the Endocannabinoid System
In view of its hormonal effects, It was assumed that MACA exerted an effect on hormone receptors, however studies by Dr Bogani in 2006 showed this was not the case.(20) The exact mechanism of action of MACA remained a mystery until biochemists recognized a structural similarity of MACA compounds with Anadamide, the endogenous endo-cannabinoid discovered in 1992 by Devane, Hanuš and Mechoulam.(21)
Structural SImilarity of MACA to Anandamide
Left Image: Top Molecule is Anandamide. Molecules numbered 5-7 are MACA compounds bearing striking similarity to Anandamide (top). Courtesy of Endocannabinoid Modulating Alkylamides Lepidium meyenii MACA Zsanett Hajdu J Nat Products 2014.(23)
MACA Inhibits FAAH
Further studies revealed that MACA compounds serve as Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors.(22) Anandamide is degraded by FAAH, so inhibiting FAAH prolongs the presence of Anandamide, the principal endogenous endocannabinoid. FAAH inhibitors are known to “act on the central nervous system to provide analgesic, anti-inflammatory, or neuroprotective effects, by modulating the release of neurotransmitters.” (22-24)
The ability of MACA compounds to mimic the endogenous endocannabinoid system is a huge discovery, and explains the varied and extensive health effects of MACA. For more on the endocannabinoid system and health benefits of cannabis see my book on the topic: Cannabis Extracts in Medicine: The Promise of Benefits in Seizure Disorders, Cancer and Other Conditions (Mcfarland Health Topics)
by Jeffrey Dach M.D. (Author), Elaine A. Moore (Author), Justin Kander (Author)
Differing Effects of Various Types of MACA, Black Red, Yellow
Dr Gonzales reports in 2014 that “Black maca shows the best results on spermatogenesis, memory and fatigue, while red maca is the variety that reverses (BPH) benign prostatic hyperplasia and osteoporosis”. (25)
Dr Peter Bablis writes in his article, “Are you using the right type of Maca”,
The red maca phenotype reduces size of prostate (BPH), and black maca is best for energy-promoting properties. Black maca alone improves sperm motility and count while yellow or red maca does not. Black and red maca improves bone
health, but yellow does not. Black maca is best for enhancing memory and learning.
Conclusion: MACA’s health benefits have been known for centuries with no demonstrable toxicity nor adverse effects, yet the full story of MACA is still evolving. Do you have a MACA story to tell? Send it in to us and post it in the comment section.
Articles with related Interest:
Jeffrey Dach MD
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Links and References
2014 MACA increases LH levels in RATS
1) Uchiyama, Fumiaki, et al. “Lepidium meyenii (Maca) enhances the serum levels of luteinising hormone in female rats.” Journal of ethnopharmacology 151.2 (2014): 897-902.
2) testosterone-T Boosters Revisited MACA Suppversity
MACA increases serum testosterone concentration
3) Ohta, Y., et al. “Feeding hydroalcoholic extract powder of Lepidium meyenii (maca) increases serum testosterone concentration and enhances steroidogenic ability of Leydig cells in male rats.” Andrologia (2015).
Although Lepidium meyenii (maca), a plant growing in Peru’s central Andes, has been traditionally used for enhancing fertility and reproductive performance in domestic animals and human beings, effects of maca on reproductive organs are still unclear. This study examined whether feeding the hydroalcoholic extract powder of maca for 6 weeks affects weight of the reproductive organs, serum concentrations of testosterone and luteinising hormone (LH), number and cytoplasmic area of immunohistochemically stained Leydig cells, and steroidogenesis of cultured Leydig cells in 8-week-old male rats. Feeding the extract powder increased weight of seminal vesicles, serum testosterone level and cytoplasmic area of Leydig cells when compared with controls. Weight of prostate gland, serum LH concentration and number of Leydig cells were not affected by the maca treatment. The testosterone production by Leydig cells significantly increased when cultured with 22R-hydroxycholesterol or pregnenolone and tended to increase when cultured with hCG by feeding the extract powder. The results show that feeding the hydroalcoholic extract powder of maca for 6 weeks increases serum testosterone concentration associated with seminal vesicle stimulation in male rats, and this increase in testosterone level may be related to the enhanced ability of testosterone production by Leydig cells especially in the metabolic process following cholesterol.
The results show that feeding the hydroalcoholic extract powder of maca for 6 weeks increases serum testosterone concentration associated with seminal vesicle stimulation in male rats, and this increase in testosterone level may be related to the enhanced ability of testosterone production by Leydig cells especially in the metabolic process following cholesterol.
4) My Experience on the Benefits of Maca by Life Twink · December 5, 2012
Here is my experience on the benefits of Maca superfood. 2 years regular use behind and this is what I can tell you about the maca benefits.
4) The Benefits Of Maca Root Supplementation for Athletes and Bodybuilders By Edward Clements On December 16, 2012 ·
5) Building Muscle the Natural Way – Maca Bodybuilding
2005 Meissner – MACA-GO post menopause increased E2, decreased FSH alleviated menopausal syx, Increased bone density. LH increased.
7) full pdf
Meissner, H. O., et al. “Use of gelatinized maca (lepidium peruvianum) in early postmenopausal women.” Int J Biomed Sci 1.1 (2005): 33-45.
This double-blind, placebo-corrected clinical pilot study was aimed at assessing the use of hypocotyls of cruciferous Andean plant Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon), in alleviating symptoms of menopausal discomfort experienced by women in early post menopause as measured by profiles of serum hormones: Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH), Estrogen (E2) and Progesterone (PG) and as assessed by Greene’s Menopausal Index.
Study was conducted on 20 Caucasian healthy early-postmenopausal women volunteers during the three months period (Trial I) and on eight women during nine months period (Trial II). Hormone levels were determined in blood with a simultaneous assessment of menopausal index at the start of study, after one month use of placebo, and after two and eight months administration of 2g gelatinized Maca root powder (Maca-GO) in the form of two 500mg hard gel capsules, twice daily.
RESULTS: In comparison to placebo, after both, two and eight months administration of Maca-GO capsules to EPMW, level of FSH significantly (P<0.05) decreased with a simultaneous significant (P<0.05) increase in the LH level, resulting in significant (P<0.05) increase in both E2 and PG, after eight months of Maca-GO treatment only. There was a significant (P<0.05) placebo effect resulting in an elevated PG level after one month administration of placebo capsules. Changes in hormone levels was accompanied by substantially-reduced feeling of discomfort associated with menopause, although, there was a distinctive, positive placebo effect as judged by responses to Greene’s questionnaire.
CONCLUSIONS: It is reasonable to suggest that Maca-GO when used in EPMW, depending on the length of use, was acting as a toner of hormonal processes as reflected by decrease in FSH and increased LH secretion, which stimulated production of both ovarian hormones, E2 and PG and resulted in a substantial reduction of menopausal discomfort felt by women participating in the study, with a distinctive placebo effect, thus, fully justifying further, more complex study on effectiveness of Maca-GO as a reliable alternative to HRT program.
2006 full free MACA-GO Early post menopausal women: Two months application of Maca-GO stimulated Estradiol, suppressed FSH, alleviated menopausal symptoms. increased bone density markers.
8) Meissner, H. O., et al. “Hormone-balancing effect of pre-gelatinized organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon):(III) clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to Maca in double blind, randomized, placebo- controlled, crossover configuration, outpatient study.” International journal of biomedical science: IJBS 2.4 (2006): 375.
This is the second, conclusive part of the clinical study on clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to standardized doses of pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Maca-GO). Total of 34 Caucasian women volunteers participated in a double-blind, randomized, four months outpatient crossover configuration Trial. After fulfilling the criteria of being early-postmenopausal: blood Estrogen (E2<40 pg/ml) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH>30 IU/ml) at admission, they were randomly allocated to Placebo (P) and Maca-GO (M) treatments (2 groups of 11 participants each). Two 500 mg vegetable hard gel capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo powder were self-administered twice daily with meals (total 2 g/day). At admission and follow-up monthly intervals, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, levels of gonadal, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal hormones,lipids and key minerals were measured. Bone markers were determined after four months M and P use in 12 participants. Menopausal symptoms were assessed according to Greene’s Score (GMS) and Kupperman’s Index (KMI). Data were analyzed using multivariate technique on blocs of monthly. Results and canonical variate technique was applied to GMS and KMI matrices. Two months application of Maca-GO stimulated (P<0.05) production of E2, suppressed (P<0.05) blood FSH, Thyroid (T3) and Adrenocorticotropic hormones, Cortisol, and BMI, increased (P<0.05) low density lipoproteins, blood Iron and alleviated (P<0.001) menopausal symptoms. Maca-GO noticeably increased bone density markers. In conclusion, Maca-GO applied to early-postmenopausal women (i) acted as a toner of hormonal processes along the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Ovarian axis, (ii) balanced hormone levels and (iii) relieved symptoms of menopausal discomfort, (hot flushes and night sweating in particular), thus, (iv) exhibited a distinctive function peculiar to adaptogens, providing an alternative non-hormonal plant option to reduce dependence on hormone therapy programs (HRT).
2015 Maca for SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction in postmenopause
9) Dording, Christina M., et al. “A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Maca Root as Treatment for Antidepressant-Induced Sexual Dysfunction in Women.” Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: eCAM 2015 (2015).
Objective. We sought to demonstrate that maca root may be an effective treatment for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction (AISD) in women. Method. We conducted a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of maca root (3.0?g/day) in 45 female outpatients (mean age of 41.5 ± 12.5 years) with SSRI/SNRI-induced sexual dysfunction whose depression remitted. Endpoints were improvement in sexual functioning as per the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX) and the Massachusetts General Hospital Sexual Function Questionnaire (MGH-SFQ). Results. 45 of 57 consented females were randomized, and 42 (30 premenopausal and 12 postmenopausal women) were eligible for a modified intent-to-treat analysis based on having had at least one postmedication visit. Remission rates by the end of treatment were higher for the maca than the placebo group, based on attainment of an ASEX total score = 10 (9.5% for maca versus 4.8% for placebo), attaining an MGH-SFQ score = 12 (30.0% for maca versus 20.0% for placebo) and reaching an MGH-SFQ score = 8 (9.5% for maca versus 5.0% for placebo). Higher remission rates for the maca versus placebo group were associated with postmenopausal status. Maca was well tolerated. Conclusion. Maca root may alleviate SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women.
2014 MACA antidepressant-like effects increases noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems mouse brain.
10) J Med Food. 2014 May;17(5):535-42. Antidepressant-like behavioral, anatomical, and biochemical effects of petroleum ether extract from maca (Lepidium meyenii) in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress.
Ai Z1, Cheng AF, Yu YT, Yu LJ, Jin W.
Maca has been consumed as a medical food in Peru for thousands of years, and exerts anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. Our present study aimed to evaluate the behavior and anatomical and biochemical effects of petroleum ether extract from maca (ME) in the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model of depression in mice. Three different doses of maca extract (125, 250, and 500mg/kg) were orally administrated in the six-week CUMS procedure. Fluoxetine (10mg/kg) was used as a positive control drug. Maca extract (250 and 500mg/kg) significantly decreased the duration of immobility time in the tail suspension test. After treatment with maca extract (250 and 500mg/kg), the granule cell layer in the dentate gyrus appeared thicker. Maca extract (250 and 500mg/kg) also induced a significant reduction in corticosterone levels in mouse serum. In mouse brain tissue, after six weeks of treatment, noradrenaline and dopamine levels were increased by maca extract, and the activity of reactive oxygen species was significantly inhibited. Serotonin levels were not significantly altered. These results demonstrated that maca extract (250 and 500mg/kg) showed antidepressant-like effects and was related to the activation of both noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems, as well as attenuation of oxidative stress in mouse brain.
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MACA alleviates Colitis
11) Cho, Jae Young, et al. “Supercritical fluid extract from maca alleviates colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium in mice.” Food Science and Biotechnology 22.3 (2013): 859-864.
The objective of this study was to investigate the possible protective effects of maca (Lepidium meyenii) extract (MLE) by supercritical fluid extraction on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Experimental colitis was induced by giving male BALB/c mice 3% DSS in drinking water, and MLE (30 mg/kg BW), sulfasalazine (100 mg/kg BW) or vehicle were administered orally. DSS challenge caused significant body weight loss, rectal bleeding, diarrhea, shortened colon length, histological changes, and increased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in DSS-treated mice. Oral administration of MLE significantly relieved the symptoms of diarrhea and rectal bleeding, and reduced colonic MPO activity (p<0.05). MLE treatment inhibited expression of several colonic proteins related to inflammatory responses, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, and S100 calcium-binding protein A8, whose expressions were increased significantly by DSS treatment. These results suggest that MLE can alleviate DSS-induced colitis in mice by modulating colonic inflammatory mediators.
2015 MACA reduces BP alleviates depression post menopause Hong Kong
12) full pdf
Climacteric. 2015 Feb;18(1):69-78. Maca reduces blood pressure and depression, in a pilot study in postmenopausal women. Stojanovska L1, Law C, Lai B, Chung T, Nelson K, Day S, Apostolopoulos V, Haines C.
Lepidium meyenii (Maca) has been used for centuries for its fertility-enhancing and aphrodisiac properties. In an Australian study, Maca improved anxiety and depressive scores. The effects of Maca on hormones, lipids, glucose, serum cytokines, blood pressure, menopausal symptoms and general well-being in Chinese postmenopausal women were evaluated.
METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was conducted in 29 postmenopausal Hong Kong Chinese women. They received 3.3 g/day of Maca or placebo for 6 weeks each, in either order, over 12 weeks. At baseline, week 6 and week 12, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), full lipid profiles, glucose and serum cytokines were measured. The Greene Climacteric, SF-36 Version 2, Women’s Health Questionnaire and Utian Quality of Life Scales were used to assess the severity of menopausal symptoms and health-related quality of life.
RESULTS: There were no differences in estradiol, FSH, TSH, SHBG, glucose, lipid profiles and serum cytokines amongst those who received Maca as compared to the placebo group; however, significant decreases in diastolic blood pressure and depression were apparent after Maca treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: Maca did not exert hormonal or immune biological action in the small cohort of patients studied; however, it appeared to reduce symptoms of depression and improve diastolic blood pressure in Chinese postmenopausal women. Although results are comparable to previous similar published studies in postmenopausal women, there might be a cultural difference among the Chinese postmenopausal women in terms of symptom reporting.
13) full free
Srikugan, L., A. Sankaralingam, and B. McGowan. “First case report of testosterone assay-interference in a female taking maca (Lepidium meyenii).” BMJ case reports 2011 (2011): bcr0120113781.
A young female with prolonged intermenstrual bleeding was found to have raised total plasma testosterone of 25.8 nmol/l (NR<2.9 nmol/l) using the Roche Elecsys Testosterone I immunoassay without clinical features of virulisation. Few months ago investigations for lethargy and low libido had shown normal total testosterone of 0.8 nmol/l. Further history revealed that she was using maca extract to improve her lethargy and low libido. Maca is traditionally used for its aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties. Maca use has not been shown to affect serum testosterone in mice and human studies. Immunoassay interference with maca was suspected. Testosterone immunoassays use monoclonal antibodies specifically directed against testosterone. They are prone to interference from androgenic compounds. Reanalysis of the original serum sample using Elecsys Testosterone II assay, a higher affinity assay, revealed a total testosterone level of 2.9 nmol/l. It is important to exclude assay interference when testosterone level is greater than 5 nmol/l without supportive clinical signs.
Black MACA Improves Memory
14) Rubio, J., et al. “Dose-response effect of black maca (Lepidium meyenii) in mice with memory impairment induced by ethanol.” Toxicology mechanisms and methods 21.8 (2011): f628. Previous studies have shown that black variety of maca has beneficial effects on learning and memory in experimental animal models. The present study aimed to determine whether the hydroalcoholic extract of black maca (BM) showed a dose-response effect in mice treated with ethanol 20% (EtOH) as a model of memory impairment. Mice were divided in the following groups: control, EtOH, ascorbic acid (AA) and 0.125, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 g/kg of BM plus EtOH. All treatments were orally administered for 28 days. Open field test was performed to determine locomotor activity and water Morris maze was done to determine spatial memory. Also, total polyphenol content in the hydroalcoholic extract of BM was determined (0.65 g pyrogallol/100 g). Mice treated with EtOH took more time to find the hidden platform than control during escape acquisition trials; meanwhile, AA and BM reversed the effect of EtOH. In addition, AA and BM ameliorated the deleterious effect of EtOH during the probe trial. Correlation analyses showed that the effect of BM a dose-dependent behavior. Finally, BM improved experimental memory impairment induced by ethanol in a dose-response manner due, in part, to its content of polyphenolic compounds.
15) word doc/pdf
Gonzales, Gustavo F. “Ethnobiology and ethnopharmacology of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a plant from the Peruvian highlands.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012 (2011).
16) Gonzales, Gustavo F., et al. “Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp), a review of its biological properties.” Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y SaludPública 31.1 (2014): 100-110.
MACA anitiviral activity
17) del Valle Mendoza, Juana, et al. “Antiviral activity of maca (Lepidium meyenii) against human influenza virus.” Asian Pacific journal of tropical medicine 7 (2014): S415-S420.
To investigate antiviral activity of maca to reduce viral load in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells infected with influenza type A and B viruses (Flu-A and Flu-B, respectively). METHODS: Maca were extracted with methanol (1:2, v/v). The cell viability and toxicity of the extracts were evaluated on MDCK cells using method MTT assay. Antiviral activity of compounds against Flu-A and Flu-B viruses was assayed using a test for determining the inhibition of the cytopathic effect on cell culture and multiplex RT-PCR. RESULTS: The methanol extract of maca showed low cytotoxicity and inhibited influenza- induced cytopathic effect significantly, while viral load was reduced via inhibition of viral growth in MDCK infected cells. Maca contains potent inhibitors of Flu-A and Flu-B with a selectivity index [cytotoxic concentration 50%/IC50] of 157.4 and 110.5, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: In vitro assays demonstrated that maca has antiviral activity not only against Flu-A (like most antiviral agents) but also Flu-B viruses, providing remarkable therapeutic benefits.
best summary articles:
18) Getting to the Root of Maca 2014 By Annie Hall
Manage Menopause Hormonal Balance with MACA By Julius Goepp, MD June 2010 Life Extension
Life Extension Magazine June 2010 A New Way to Manage Menopause Regain Hormonal Balance with a Cutting-edge Adaptogen By Julius Goepp, MD
full free pdf – summarizes all previous studies
19) Rosales-Hartshorn, M. “Maca: botanical medicine from the andes.” Adv Food Technol Nutr Sci Open J 1.2 (2015): e1-e6. Maca botanical medicine from Andes Rosales Hartshorn May 2015
20) Bogani, P., et al. “Lepidium meyenii (Maca) does not exert direct androgenic activities.” Journal of Ethnopharmacology 104 (2006): 415-417. Lepidium meyenii Maca does not exert androgenic activities Ethnopharmacology 2006 Bogani
In synthesis, our study shows that Maca does not modulate
androgen receptors (Fig. 1). Therefore, although there is
evidence associating enhanced sexual libido, fertility, and spermatogenesis
with Maca consumption, a pharmacological and
causal relationship between Maca ingestion and its effects on
human reproduction is yet to be ascertained, in order to identify
the mechanism(s) of action of Maca components
21) Hanuš, Lumír O. “Discovery and isolation of anandamide and other endocannabinoids.” Chemistry & biodiversity 4.8 (2007): 1828-1841. Hanuš Lumír Discovery Anandamide Chemistry biodiversity 2007
2013 MACA is FAAH Inhibitor – neuroprotective
Maca as FAAH inhibitors, as they might act on the central nervous system to provide analgesic, anti-inflammatory, or neuroprotective effects, by modulating the release of neurotransmitters.
22) Almukadi, Haifa, et al. “The macamide N-3-methoxybenzyl-linoleamide is a time-dependent fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor.” Molecular neurobiology 48.2 (2013): 333-339.
The Peruvian plant Lepidium meyenii (Maca) has been shown to possess neuroprotective activity both in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies have also demonstrated the activity of the pentane extract and its macamides, the most representative lipophilic constituents of Maca, in the endocannabinoid system as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors. One of the most active macamides, N-3-methoxybenzyl-linoleamide, was studied to determine its mechanism of interaction with FAAH and whether it has inhibitory activity on mono-acyl glycerol lipase (MAGL), the second enzyme responsible for endocannabinoid degradation. Macamide concentrations from 1 to 100 µM were tested using FAAH and MAGL inhibitor assay methods and showed no effect on MAGL. Tests with other conditions were performed in order to characterize the inhibitory mechanism of FAAH inhibition. N-3-methoxybenzyl-linoleamide displayed significant time-dependent and dose-dependent FAAH inhibitory activity. The mechanism of inhibition was most likely irreversible or slowly reversible. These results suggest the potential application of macamides isolated from Maca as FAAH inhibitors, as they might act on the central nervous system to provide analgesic, anti-inflammatory, or neuroprotective effects, by modulating the release of neurotransmitters.
full free pdf
23) Hajdu, Zsanett, et al. “Identification of endocannabinoid system-modulating N-alkylamides from Heliopsis helianthoides var. scabra and Lepidium meyenii.” Journal of natural products 77.7 (2014): 1663-1669. Endocannabinoid Modulating Alkylamides Lepidium meyenii MACA Zsanett Hajdu J Nat Products 2014
Left Image: macamides
5−7 isolated from MACA. Note structural similarity with Anandamide (endogenous cannabinoid AEA)
This study provides additional strong evidence of the endocannabinoid substrate
mimicking of plant-derived NAAs and uncovers a direct and indirect cannabimimetic action of the Peruvian Maca root.
Lepidium meyenii Walp. (Brassicaceae) is a South American plant, also known as
Maca in Peru where it is extensively cultivated. Its hypocotyl is consumed as a common vegetable and also employed traditionally for medicinal purposes, including general invigoration and as a purported fertility enhancer for people and
domesticated animals.14-17 At present, 19 macamides have been described from this species.18 It has been shown that the macamide N-3-methoxybenzyl linoleamide weakly inhibits the major AEA-degrading enzyme FAAH and may thus exert
indirect cannabimimetic neuroprotective effects.19 This was recently confirmed in a study in which synthesized macamides and analogues were indeed shown to act as FAAH inhibitors, although no further ECS targets were tested.18 Macamide 7 showed a significant direct interaction with CB1 receptors
Macamide 7 seems to fulfill the criteria for endocannabinoid substrate mimicking as this is the only NAA known so far to interact with several ECS targets at low micromolar or even submicromolar concentrations.
it would be interesting to test whether the cannabimimetic action expected from this compound could relate to the ethnopharmacological use of Maca. Given the fact that CB1 receptors are expressed in sperm and that the ECS appears to play a role
in fertility and sperm quality,33 the fertility enhancing effects of Maca widely reported in the ethnopharmacological literature14-17 should be studied in light of the data presented here.
It has already been shown that Maca supplementation improves bovine sperm quality,34 and it would be interesting to test the hypothesis that these effects are mediated, at least in part, by ECS-targeting macamides, such as compound 7. Overall, this study provides additional evidence of the structural and functional similarity between NAAs and endocannabinoids,
24) Vu, Huyen. “Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) Inhibitors: Discovery in Lepidium meyenii (Maca) Extracts.” 2012 NCUR (2012).Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase FAAH Inhibitors Lepidium meyenii Maca Vu Huyen NCUR 2012
The aim of this research is focused on the structural similarities between macamides (Figure 1) and anandamide.
(Figure 2) and considering the medicinal claims and pharmacological properties of the Maca plant. It is hypothesized that the Maca plant, by way of its macamides, could be directly or indirectly acting on the endocannabinoid system. The investigation of the macamides’ FAAH inhibitory potential is the first step to demonstrate their possible mechanism of action on the endocannabinoid system. In this research, several macamides present in the Maca plant were screened for their inhibitory capacity on the human FAAH.
2014 Different Color MACAS black, yellow and red
25) Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica. 2014;31(1):100-10.
[Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp), a review of its biological properties].
[Article in Spanish] Gonzales GF1, Villaorduña L2, Gasco M1, Rubio J1, Gonzales C1.
Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is a plant that grows above 4000 altitude meters in Peru’s Central Andes; it has different varieties according to the color of the hypocotyl. This review summarizes the results of studies about the effects of maca on sexual function, spermatogenesis, female reproductive function, memory, depression and anxiety, and energy as well as effects on benign prostatic hyperplasia, osteoporosis and metabolic syndrome. Its anti-aging effect is also discussed as well as safety in consumption. Differences have been shown between the effects of the black, yellow and red maca varieties.
Black maca shows the best results on spermatogenesis, memory and fatigue, whilered maca is the variety that reverses the benign prostatic hyperplasia and experimentally induced osteoporosis. In addition, maca reduces the glucose levels, and its consumption is related to the lowering of blood pressure and an improved health score. Experimental studies have proven that short and long term consumption don’t show in vivo and in vitro toxicity.
2006 Black MACA and sperm production
26) Andrologia. 2006 Oct;38(5):166-72.
Effect of Black maca (Lepidium meyenii) on one spermatogenic cycle in rats.
Gonzales GF1, Nieto J, Rubio J, Gasco M.
Lepidium meyenii (Maca) grows exclusively between 4000 and 4500 m above sea level in the Peruvian central Andes. The hypocotyls of this plant are traditionally used in the Andean region for their supposed fertility-enhancing properties. The hypocotyls have different colours. Of these, Black maca has better effects on spermatogenesis. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that Black maca has early effects during a spermatogenic cycle (12 days) of male rats. For this, testicular spermatid, epididymal sperm and vas deferens sperm counts were measured after 1, 3, 5, 7 and 12 days of treatment with Black maca. Aqueous extract of Black maca was given orally by daily gavage at a dose of 2 g kg(-1). In a spermatogenic cycle, compared with day 1, daily sperm production (DSP) was lower at day 7 (control), whereas with Black maca, the difference was observed at day 12. Epididymal sperm count was higher in rats treated with Black maca at days 1, 3 and 7, but similar to controls at days 5 and 12; similarly sperm counts in vas deferens was higher in rats treated with Black maca in days 3, 5 and 7, but similar to controls at days 1 and 12. From this, it is suggested that first action of Black maca was at epididymal level increasing sperm count after 1 day of treatment, whereas an increase in sperm count was observed in vas deferens at day 3 of treatment. Finally, an increase in DSP was observed after 7 days of treatment with Black maca. Testicular testosterone was not affected after 7 days treatment with Black maca. In conclusion, Black maca affects sperm count as early as 1 day after beginning of treatment.
27) J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Feb 20;103(3):448-54. Epub 2005 Sep 19.
Effect of short-term and long-term treatments with three ecotypes of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on spermatogenesis in rats. Gonzales C1, Rubio J, Gasco M, Nieto J, Yucra S, Gonzales GF.
Lepidium meyenii (Brassicaceae), known as Maca, is a Peruvian hypocotyl that grows exclusively between 4000 and 4500 m above sea level in the central Andes. Maca is traditionally employed in the Andean region for its supposed fertility-enhancing properties. The study aimed to test the hypothesis that different ecotypes of Maca (Red, Yellow and Black) after short-term (7 days) and long-term (42 days) treatment affects differentially spermatogenesis adult rats. After 7 days of treatment with Yellow and Red Maca, the length of stage VIII was increased (P<0.05), whereas with Black Maca stages II-VI and VIII were increased (P<0.05). Daily sperm production (DSP) was increased in the group treated with Black Maca compared with control values (P<0.05). Red or Yellow Maca did not alter DSP and epididymal sperm motility was not affected by treatment with any ecotype of Maca. After 42 days of treatment, Black Maca was the only ecotype that enhanced DSP (P<0.05). Moreover, Black Maca was the only that increased epididymal sperm motility (P<0.05). In relation to the control group, Red Maca did not affect testicular and epididymal weight nor epididymal sperm motility and sperm count; however, prostate weight was reduced (P<0.05). Black or Yellow Maca did not affect prostate weight. In conclusion, there were differences in the biological response of the three ecotypes of Maca (Yellow, Red and Black). Black Maca appeared to have more beneficial effect on sperm counts and epididymal sperm motility.
28) Is adding Maca to Your Smoothies and Recommending It to Your Clients a Good Idea or All Hype? Posted on November 30, 2015 by Jessica Drummond The Integrative WOmens Health Institute
2015 Healthy Adult Males MACA increases Sperm concentration and motility
Melnikovova, Ingrid, et al. “Effect of Lepidium meyenii Walp. on Semen Parameters and Serum Hormone Levels in Healthy Adult Men: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2015 (2015).
Background/Aims. Products of Lepidium meyenii Walp. (maca) are touted worldwide as an alimentary supplement to enhance fertility and restore hormonal balance. Enhancing properties of maca on semen parameters in animals were previously reported by various authors, but we present to the best of our knowledge the first double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial in men. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maca on semen parameters and serum hormone levels in healthy adult men. Methods. A group of 20 volunteers aged 20–40 years was supplied by milled hypocotyl of maca or placebo (1.75?g/day) for 12 weeks. Negative controls of semen were compared to the samples after 6 and 12 weeks of maca administration; negative blood controls were compared to the samples after 12 weeks of treatment. Results. Sperm concentration and motility showed rising trends compared to placebo even though levels of hormones did not change significantly after 12 weeks of trial. Conclusion. Our results indicate that maca possesses fertility enhancing properties in men. As long as men prefer to use alimentary supplement to enhance fertility rather than prescribed medication or any medical intervention, it is worth continuing to assess its possible benefits.
MACA Prolongs Swim Test
29) Yang, Q., et al. “Effects of macamides on endurance capacity and anti-fatigue property in prolonged swimming mice.” Pharmaceutical biology (2015): 1.
Lepidium meyenii Walp. (Brassicaceae), most commonly known as “maca”, has been used as a food or folk medicine to improve vitality in Peru. Previous research demonstrated that lipid-soluble extract from maca improved swimming endurance capacity. Macamides are considered the typical lipid-soluble markers for maca and proved to have several pharmacological properties, such as improving sexual performance and neuroprotective activies.
The present study investigates the effects of macamides on endurance capacity and anti-fatigue property in prolonged swimming mice.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The Balb/c mice were divided into seven groups: a control group, low-dose groups of N-benzyllinoleamide, N-benzyloleamide, and N-benzylpalmitamide, high-dose groups of these macamides. The macamides groups received the commercial products (12 and 40?mg/kg, ig), while the control group received vehicle for 21 d. On the 14th day, the mice were given the weight-loaded swimming test. On the 21st day, the mice were sacrificed immediately after 90?min swimming, and some biochemical parameters were measured.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
Compared with the control group, exhaustive swimming time was significantly prolonged in high-dose group of N-benzyloleamide (p?<?0.05); the levels of lactic acid (LD), blood ammonia (BA), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly decreased (p?<?0.05), whereas the levels of liver glycogen (LG) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) were significantly increased (p?<?0.05) in high-dose group of N-benzyloleamide. The malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the brain, muscle, and liver were significantly decreased (p?<?0.05), whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activities in the brain, muscle, and liver were significantly increased in high-dose group of N-benzyloleamide (p?<?0.05).
The results indicate that N-benzyloleamide has pharmaceutical property against exercise-induced fatigue, and this effect can be explained by the modulated energy metabolism and improved antioxidant status.
30) Alquraini, Ali, et al. “Neuroprotective effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) and macamides against amyloid-beta (25-35) induced toxicity in B-35 neuroblastoma cells (657.13).” The FASEB Journal 28.1 Supplement (2014): 657-13.
Production and deposition of Amyloid-beta (Aß) peptide is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. The Maca plant (Lepidium meyenii) has been used as a traditional medicine to treat several diseases. It contains macamides, compounds which are structurally similar to the endocannabinoids which have neuroprotective effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of a Maca pentane extract (5-50 µg/mL) and some of the component macamides: N-benzylpalmitamide, N-benzyloleamide and N-(3-methoxybenzyl)palmitamide (1-30 µM) on the B-35 neuroblastoma cell line. B-35 cells were pre-treated with extract or macamides and subsequently exposed to a neurotoxic concentration (10 µM) of Aß (25-35). A cell viability assay utilizing 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) was performed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects. The results demonstrated that the Maca extract and N-(3-methoxybenzyl)palmitamide counteracted the toxicity produced by Aß (25-35), demonstrating significant increases in cell viability (34% and 21% respectively). Furthermore, when the tested compounds were evaluated for antioxidant activity and their effects on caspase 3, neither the Maca extract nor N-(3-methoxybenzyl)palmitamide demonstrated an antioxidant effect or caspase 3 inhibition. These results suggest that the Maca extract and macamides may produce neuroprotective effects against Aß by mechanisms other than caspase 3 inhibition or an antioxidant effect.
Xia Liang, Xiao. “Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Macamides Derivatives as Potent Inhibitors of Breast Cancer Cell MCF-7.” Letters in Drug Design & Discovery 13.
PATENT MACA Improves Libido
31) A lipidic extract from lepidium meynii and its effect on the libido
US 20070116786 A1
32) Composition and method for fertility therapy using nutritional supplements
US 8663709 B1 Abstract
A new composition and method are described for male fertility therapy. In one alternative, the composition utilizes three nutritional supplements, Lepidium meyenii, L-carnitine, and Coenzyme Q10. When it is administered to males as fertility therapy following the recommended therapeutic regimen, enhanced sperm count, sperm quality, and sperm motility results.
33) Pino-Figueroa, Alejandro, et al. “Mechanism of action of Lepidium meyenii (Maca): an explanation for its neuroprotective activity.” American Journal of Neuroprotection and Neuroregeneration 3.1 (2011): 87-92.
The pentane extract of the Peruvian plant Lepidium meyenii (Maca) has been shown to possess neuroprotective activity in vitro (in crayfish neurons) and in vivo (in rats subjected to focal ischemic stroke). These results suggested a potential application of the lipophilic compounds from Maca as neuroprotectants. The current study was designed to examine the neuroprotectant activity in rat neuroblastoma cells and the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the mechanism of action of the Maca pentane extract. Rat neuroblastoma cells were pretreated with vehicle or O-2050 (a high affinity cannabinoid CB1 receptor silent antagonist) and exposed one hour later to either: Maca pentane extract or anandamide (an endogenous cannabinoid). After 1 hour incubation, cells were exposed to oxidative damage with H2O2. Cell viability was determined 24 hours later by the trypan blue exclusion cell count method and the spectrophotometric dimethylthiazolylcarboxymethoxyphenyl-sulfophenyl-tetrazolium (MTS) method. The neuroprotectant activity of the pentane extract was confirmed. Compound O-2050 alone produced neurotoxic effects, and significantly (p < 0.05) antagonized the neuroprotectant activity of the pentane extract when used in combination. The pentane extract was tested in an in vitro model using human recombinant fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme responsible for endocannabinoid degradation. The Maca pentane extract demonstrated a significant concentration-dependent FAAH inhibitory activity (p < 0.05) at concentrations between 0.1 to 30 µg/mL. These results suggest a potential application of Maca or its constituents as FAAH inhibitors. Maca lipophilic constituents may influence neurotransmission in the central nervous system and may act through the endocannabinoid system to protect neurons against excitotoxic damage.
FAAH inhibition improves memory and learning
35) Mazzola, Carmen, et al. “Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition enhances memory acquisition through activation of PPAR-a nuclear receptors.” Learning & Memory 16.5 (2009): 332-337.
Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) increase endogenous levels of anandamide (a cannabinoid CB1-receptor ligand) and oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide (OEA and PEA, ligands for a-type peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptors, PPAR-a) when and where they are naturally released in the brain. Using a passive-avoidance task in rats, we found that memory acquisition was enhanced by the FAAH inhibitor URB597 or by the PPAR-a agonist WY14643, and these enhancements were blocked by the PPAR-a antagonist MK886. These findings demonstrate novel mechanisms for memory enhancement by activation of PPAR-a, either directly by administering a PPAR-a agonist or indirectly by administering a FAAH inhibitor.
36) Justinova, Zuzana, et al. “Fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition heightens anandamide signaling without producing reinforcing effects in primates.” Biological psychiatry 64.11 (2008): 930-937.
In the monkey brain, the FAAH inhibitor URB597 increases anandamide levels while causing a compensatory down-regulation in 2-AG levels. These effects are accompanied by a striking lack of reinforcing properties, which distinguishes URB597 from direct-acting cannabinoid agonists such as THC. Our results reveal an unexpected functional heterogeneity within the endocannabinoid signaling system, and suggest that FAAH inhibitors might be used therapeutically without risk of abuse or triggering of relapse to drug abuse.
Panlilio, Leigh V., Zuzana Justinova, and Steven R. Goldberg. “Inhibition of FAAH and activation of PPAR: new approaches to the treatment of cognitive dysfunction and drug addiction.” Pharmacology & therapeutics 138.1 (2013): 84-102.
MACA suggested as alternative to HRT in post menopause women
free pdf (Maca-GO®) as an Alternative to HRT
37) Carter, Ronald. “Clinical Effects of a Proprietary, Standardized, Concentrated, Organic Lepidium Peruvianum Formulation (Maca-GO®) as an Alternative to HRT.”
White Paper – Menopause and Maca-GO® Page 1
Natural Health International, 524 Second Street, San Francisco, CA 94107, (415) 243-9991, http://www.naturalhi.com, 2008
Clinical Effects of a Proprietary, Standardized, Concentrated, Organic Lepidium Peruvianum Formulation (Maca-GO®) as an Alternative to HRT Ronald Carter, M.D
38) Peter Bablis, D. C. “Are you using the right type of Maca?.” Peter Bablis Are you using the right type of Maca GO Natural Health International
red maca phenotype will reduce the size of a prostate,
black maca is considered the strongest in energy-promoting properties.2,3
black maca alone was also shown to improve sperm motility and count while yellow or red maca did not
Dr. G.F. Gonzales’ research group discovered how black and red maca improve bone
health, but yellow did not and that black maca is best for influencing memory and learning.
Addressing conditions ranging from PCOS, amenorrhea, PMS and adrenal fatigue to menopausal symptoms and heart and bone health.12 It is within this range of benefits, derived from combining individual phenotypes in specific ratios and concentrating the full spectrum of active constituents, that I have found surpasses normal adaptogenic maca products, which are generally random combinations of the different phenotypes mixed together. Furthermore they are not concentrated, which may be beneficial
for general wellbeing and energy but not for specific clinical uses. Alternatively, I have also used different phenotype combinations in men from Natural Health
International to reduce prostate size and another combination called Revolution Macalibrium to counter low testosterone and adrenal fatigue
Dr. Henry Meissner (Director of Research and Development at Natural Health International San Francisco CA) has published some potentially ground breaking papers on specific, concentrated maca phenotype combinations. Known as Maca-GO® (or commercially as Femmenessence),
these concentrated combinations specifically affect hormone levels in peri and postmenopausal women and are to date the only clinical trials on any maca product to demonstrate statistically significant effects on hormones The Femmenessence MacaPause phenotype combination is designed to improve a post menopausal women’s hormone production. This combination has resulted in statistically significant increases in estradiol (P<0.001), increases in progesterone and reductions in FSH (P<0.05), with highly significant reductions in menopausal symptoms as well as increases in HDL “good cholesterol”, reductions in LDL “bad cholesterol”, triglycerides and body weight as well as increases in bone density.18 The Femmenessence MacaLife phenotype concentrated combination is designed to reduce menopausal symptoms and modulate mood associated with peri menopause and the fluctuation of hormones during this stage of life and Femmenessence MacaHarmony is for younger
women to address hormone imbalance around a wide variety of conditions as well as PMS and fertility Femmenessensce Macapause James Frame CEO Natural Health International
Published Articles Post Menopause MACA-GO
Maca-GO is a Natural Health International proprietary ingredient and only available in our products. Maca-GO is the sole ingredient in Femmenessence MacaPause and is a proprietary combination of the different phenotypes (or subspecies) of the herb maca (lepidium peruvianum). Maca-GO is harvested from NHI’s own controlled farms, and goes through a proprietary, 100% natural, manufacturing processes which concentrates the full spectrum of active ingredients and maximizes the bioavailability.
Maca-GO has been analytically proven to be one of the highest quality products on the market and is the ONLY scientifically and clinically proven menopausal product made from maca which supports hormones, heart, bone and mental health as well as an 84% success rate in reducing menopausal symptoms.
BUY On AMazon Femmenessence Macapause 120 x 500mg vegan capsules from Natural Health International
Revolution Macalibrium 120 x 750mg vegan capsules from Natural Health International
Men’s hormonal health & vitality*
Supports sexual health and sperm production* Supports energy*
Supports Cardiovascular Health*
39) Hudson, Tori. “Discovering the Health Benefits of Maca.”
Maca has actually stimulated estradiol levels, suppressed follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and increased HDL. In addition, Maca significantly reduced both the frequency and severity of hot flushes and night sweats. Furthermore, studies on Maca are now showing a significant reduction in psychological symptoms as well, including anxiety, depression, and sexual dysfunction. As such, Maca tends to treat menopausal symptoms as a whole;
The recommended dose of gelatinized Maca extract is 1,000 mg twice daily.
Males —MACA had no effect on LH FSH or testosterone
40) Gonzales, G. F., et al. “Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a root with aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties, on serum reproductive hormone levels in adult healthy men.” Journal of Endocrinology 176.1 (2003): 163-168.
MACA improves semen parameters
41) Gonzales, Gustavo F., et al. “Lepidium meyenii (Maca) improved semen parameters in adult men.” Asian Journal of Andrology 3.4 (2001): 301-304.
42) Gonzales, G. F., et al. “Effect of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on sexual desire and its absent relationship with serum testosterone levels in adult healthy men.” andrologia 34.6 (2002): 367-372.
43) Sewani-Rusike, C. R., N. Ralebona, and B. N. Nkeh-Chungag. “Dose-and time-dependent effects of Garcinia kola seed extract on sexual behaviour and reproductive parameters in male Wistar rats.” Andrologia (2015).
44) Andrologia. 2011 Apr;43(2):139-44. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0272.2009.01035.x. Epub 2011 Feb 25.
Effect of the ethanolic extract from Fagara tessmannii on testicular function, sex reproductive organs and hormone level in adult male rats.
Massoma Lembè D1, Gasco M, Rubio J, Yucra S, Sock EN, Gonzales GF.
1Faculty of Science, Department of Animal Science, University of Douala,
The effect of ethanolic extract of Fagara tessmannii, wide medicinal plants used on reproductive function in South Cameroon, was investigated in male rats. Twenty male sexually experienced rats (four groups) were orally treated with vehicle, 0.01, 0.1, 1 g kg(-1) BW per day of F. tessmannii (equivalent to 16.67 g, 33.33 g, 50 g, 66.66 g kg(-1) dry raw material) for 14 days, the upper limit dose without any clinical sign of toxicity was 2 g kg(-1). Fagara tessmannii extract negatively affected weight of accessory organs and significantly affected body weight gain at dose 1 g kg(-1) (P < 0.05) in treated rats. The weight of epididymis and seminal vesicle significantly decreased at low doses (0.01 g kg(-1)) while the prostate weight decreased at all doses (P < 0.05). The transit of spermatozoa in cauda epididymidis significantly increased at lower dose of 0.01 g kg(-1) (P < 0.05). In addition, F. tessmannii extract affected neither daily sperm production (DSP) and DSP per g nor sperm count in vas deferens and epididymis. The length of stages IX-I of the seminiferous tubule and serum testosterone level increased dose-dependently following 14 days of treatment (P < 0.05). The results suggest that F. tessmannii, 14 days after treatment, may improve spermatogenesis, testosterone level and sperm transit in cauda epididymidis but negatively impair reproductive organ activities.
on Amazon – helps hot flashes – reviews
Organic Royal Maca Whole World Botanicals 120 VCaps by Whole World Botanicals
link to this article: http://wp.me/p3gFbV-3CS
Jeffrey Dach MD
7450 Griffin Road Suite 190
Davie, Fl 33314
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