Long-term health consequences of premature or early menopause

Climacteric. 2015;18(4):483-91. doi: 10.3109/13697137.2015.1020484. Epub 2015 Apr 7.

Long-term health consequences of premature or early menopause and considerations for management.

Author information

  • 1Women’s Health Clinic, Division of General Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic , Rochester, MN.



To review the current evidence concerning the long-term harmful effects of premature or early menopause, and to discuss some of the clinical implications.


Narrative review of the literature.


Women undergoing premature or early menopause, either following bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy or because of primary ovarian insufficiency, experience the early loss of estrogen and other ovarian hormones. The long-term consequences of premature or early menopause include adverse effects on cognition, mood, cardiovascular, bone, and sexual health, as well as an increased risk of early mortality. The use of hormone therapy has been shown to lessen some, although not all of these risks. Therefore, multiple medical societies recommend providing hormone therapy at least until the natural age of menopause. It is important to individualize hormone therapy for women with early estrogen deficiency, and higher dosages may be needed to approximate physiological concentrations found in premenopausal women. It is also important to address the psychological impact of early menopause and to review the options for fertility and the potential need for contraception, if the ovaries are intact.


Women who undergo premature or early menopause should receive individualized hormone therapy and counseling.

About Dr Colin Holloway

Gp interested in natural hormone treatment for men and women of all ages

Posted on January 9, 2017, in Uncategorized. Bookmark the permalink. 2 Comments.

  1. It is best to start close to menopause, but women can still benefit if hormones are taken later.

  2. I noticed a recent comment of yours that hormone therapy will only help a woman if its started within the first few months of menopause. I am 50 went thru menopause at 39 due to Surgery Hysterectomy & BSO as I have the BRCA1 gene..( I had absolutely no hormone replacement therapy due to BRCA) does this mean that even though I believe my hormones are completely out of whack that bio-identical hormones may not be of any use to me?
    At info would be great.. I have an app with Dr Hoorigan (??) this month, but wondering if its worth coming in now

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