Omega 3 reduces breast cancer risk.
I have been recommending fish oil for the prevention of arthritis, heart disease and memory loss to my patients for many years. Here is another benefit from fish oil (Omega 3)
Modulation of Breast Cancer Risk Biomarkers by High Dose Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Phase II Pilot Study in Post-menopausal Women
Carol J. Fabian 1 , *, Bruce F. Kimler 2, Teresa A. Phillips 3, Jennifer L. Nydegger 3, Amy L. Kreutzjans 3, Susan E. Carlson 4, Brandon H. Hidaka 4, Trina Metheny 5, Carola M. Zalles 6, Gordon B. Mills 7, Kandy R. Powers 3, Debra K. Sullivan 8, Brian K. Petroff 9, Whitney L. Hensing 10, Brooke L. Fridley 11, and Stephen D. Hursting 12
Associational studies suggest higher intakes/blood levels of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) relative to the omega-6 arachidonic acid (AA) are associated with reduced breast cancer risk.
We performed a pilot study of high dose EPA + DHA in post-menopausal women to assess feasibility prior to initiating a phase IIB prevention trial. Postmenopausal women with cytologic evidence of hyperplasia in their baseline random periareolar fine needle aspiration (RPFNA) took 1820 mg EPA +1530 mg DHA ethyl esters daily for 6 months. Blood and breast tissue was sampled at baseline and study conclusion for exploratory biomarker assessment, with p values uncorrected for multiple comparisons. Feasibility was pre-defined as 50% uptake, 80% completion and 70% compliance. Trial uptake by 35 study entrants from 54 eligible women was 65%, with 97% completion and 97% compliance. Favorable modulation was suggested for serum adiponectin (p=0.0027), TNF-alpha (p=0.016), HOMA 2B measure of pancreatic beta cell function (p=0.0048) and bioavailable estradiol (p=0.039). Benign breast tissue Ki-67 (p=0.036), macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (p=0.033), cytomorphology index score (p=0.014), and percent mammographic density (p=0.036) were decreased with favorable effects in a proteomics array for several proteins associated with mitogen signaling and cell cycle arrest; but no obvious overall effect on proteins downstream of mTOR. Although favorable risk biomarker modulation will need to be confirmed in a placebo-controlled trial, we have demonstrated feasibility for development of high dose EPA and DHA ethyl esters for primary prevention of breast cancer.
Received October 2, 2014.
Revision received July 23, 2015.
Accepted August 3, 2015.
Copyright © 2015, American Association for Cancer Research